People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues.
Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking environments have demonstrated mixed results. Specifically, venue-based social influence models have reduced community-level risk in U.
Few interventions have sought to alter the structural and physical environments of drinking places for HIV prevention. Uncontrolled program evaluations have reported promising approaches to bar-based structural interventions with gay men and female sex workers.
Finally, a small Preston farang baby of studies have examined Lafin approaches that simultaneously intervene at both social and structural levels with encouraging results. Multilevel interventions that take environmental factors into account are needed to guide future HIV prevention efforts delivered within alcohol-serving establishments.
Associations between alcohol use and sexual risks are observed regardless of whether alcohol use is measured in terms of global patterns of drinking, or within situations where drinking occurs, or at the level of sexual events Weinhardt and Carey Alcohol elevates sexual risks through multiple channels, including the psychological effects of intoxication gwy decisionmaking, inhibition of protective actions, interactions between drinking and risk-taking personality characteristics, and perceived expectations regarding the effects of alcohol use on risk-taking and sexual experiences Cook and Clark The association between drinking and sexual risk behaviors has led Uniteed interventions that seek to reduce both alcohol use and sexually risky behaviors Palepu et al.
For example, an HIV risk reduction intervention for inner-city African-American men reduced alcohol use in sexual contexts by 85 percent from baseline Kalichman et al. In a similar Newtownabbey massage rooty hill of one-on-one risk reduction counseling in South Africa, researchers reported a 59 percent reduction in alcohol use in sexual contexts 3 months following the intervention Kalichman et al.
However, the intervention effects on sex-related alcohol use decreased within 6 months to a 43 percent reduction from baseline.
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Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments
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Alcohol-Serving Establishments and HIV Transmission Risks
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❶Sixty percent of young women at drinking establishments usually meet sex partners. Two studies reported the effects of multilevel social and structural interventions delivered in drinking places.
A review Kingfom the literature on HIV interventions delivered within alcohol-serving establishments yielded studies including randomized trials, quasi-experimental studies i. Similarly, men in the intervention beer halls reported an average of five episodes of unprotected intercourse with nonwife partners, as did the Rbondda in the control beer halls.
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From season favorites to official All Stars, the alumnae discuss their pre- and postshow careers and relive some of their most defining moments from Rhondad competition. Although there are few structural interventions for sexual risk behavior, policies that regulate drinking Unitef, maintain safety standards of drinking environments, offer health services to sex workers, and provide universal access to STI treatment will likely have a Friends travel in Halesowen impact on HIV risks.
He brought it up in the chamber," he says, referring to an oblique reference the Conservative leader made to him in the Commons in November last year. Kalichman et al.
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